Fair Use and Copyright

Image Citation Guidelines

This guide describes the image citation process for PowerPoint presentations at Montclair State University. There are no standard rules on how to cite images in PowerPoint, however, this guide provides some recommendations on how to properly cite images from the course design perspective. For more information about citing source materials not covered in this guide, please refer to the style guide related to your discipline or contact the Sprague library.

Purpose of Image Citation

There are three major reasons to include image citations in your PowerPoint presentations:

  1.     To give credit to the author(s) of the source materials
  2.     To enable readers to follow up on the source materials
  3.     To demonstrate the PowerPoint is well-researched.  

General Format

The citation for the source of the image is included as a footnote in the figure caption on the lower left, underneath the image. We encourage the additional use of a reference slide at the end of the presentation.

Images, charts, tables, and other graphical elements should include the figure number and a description:

Source name, title of work (Type of work & year image was created)

Examples from the 2016 Harvard business School Citation Guide :

Data excerpted from Michael Y. Yoshino and Thomas B. Lifson, The Invisible Link (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1986), p. 78, Table 4.3.

Michael E. Porter, Competitive Strategy (New York: The Free Press, 1998), p. 73, Figure 3-4. Used with permission from The Free Press.

An Image from a website or database

If the image is retrieved from the internet, the general format would be as follows:

Figure #. Name of the image. From Title of Image, by Author, Year, Retrieved from URL (address of website).

Author’s last name, first initial. Date of creation. Title of image. (Type of work). Retrieved from (database name).


All image examples are linked to a sample Powerpoint document here.

Each slide contains examples of both short citations and full citations. Click each image for a detailed view.

citation-guidelines-2016-1                      citation-guidelines-2016-2

Data in Tables

If you include a table with data, you should provide a reference:

Format: Table # Author and  Date

Full reference should include: Author, date, title, format, publisher, viewed date and URL








Full Reference:

Sanjay, M 2016, Mean Auto Statistics by Type and Origin [Table]. Graph Table with Class. Retrieved from http://blogs.sas.com/content/graphicallyspeaking/2016/07/17/graph-table-with-class/

An Original Work of an Image

To cite an original work of an image should follow the following format:

Author’s last name, first name. Title of the image. Year. Medium. Name of institution/private collection of the image/artwork, city where the private collection is located.








An Image from a Printed Source

A citation for an image from a source published in print, the general format would be:

Author’s last name, first name. Title of the image. Year of publication. Article title. Journal Title, Volume number (issue number), pages.








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